Alan Bond (engineer)

Career[ edit ] Alan Bond is an engineer, with a degree in Mechanical Engineering. He worked on liquid rocket engines, principally the RZ. He was engaged in studies for the application of fusion to interplanetary space travel. He is the leading author of the report on the Project Daedalus interstellar, fusion powered starship concept, published by the British Interplanetary Society. Bob Parkinson of British Aerospace. They relate this to the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.

Environmental radioactivity

Bierman, Paul Abstract This work aims to study the behavior of the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet during a period of pronounced ice retreat roughly 10, years ago, after the end of the last glacial period. It explores the efficiency of subglacial erosion, the spatial dynamics of ice retreat, and the rates of ice retreat. To address these questions, I use the radionuclides 10Be and 26Al, which form in rocks due to the bombardment of cosmic rays, only after the rocks have been exposed from underneath retreating ice.

These nuclides can be used as a geologic dating technique to explore exposure history.

(age between Ma and Ma based on An absolute dating technique based on the build-up and decay of 26Al and 10Be in the mineral quartz) ~1,, years old Locality: Majuangou, (lowest level) Nihewan basin, northern China, China.

Stonehenge and the Ice Age How much do we know about Stonehenge? Less than we think. And what has Stonehenge got to do with the Ice Age? More than we might think. This blog is mostly devoted to the problems of where the Stonehenge bluestones came from, and how they got from their source areas to the monument. Now and then I will muse on related Stonehenge topics which have an Ice Age dimension Bad bookshops might not have it To order, click HERE Sunday, 18 January Rhyolite pebbles on Lundy island — and limestone too This map from Rolfe et al, is generalised but nonetheless interesting, since it suggests an ice limit impinging onto Salisbury Plain not far from Stonehenge.

I’ve been looking at these two papers by Chris Rolfe and colleagues — and am reminded of the presence of rhyolite pebbles in the erratic assemblage. They appear convinced that the rhyolites are not local, and suggest they might have come from Skomer Island off the coast of Pembrokeshire.

CSUN Faculty Published in Comprehensive Historical Atlas of Los Angeles

Quaternary river incision in the western Rhenish massif: In cooperation with Prof. Tibor Dunai University of Cologne , Dr. Collaborative Research Centre Our Way to Europe; Cluster C2. Dating of tsunami deposits on the Cape Verde Islands.

This work aims to study the behavior of the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet during a period of pronounced ice retreat roughly 10, years ago, after the end of the last glacial period. It explores the efficiency of subglacial erosion, the spatial dynamics of ice retreat, and the rates of ice retreat. To address these questions, I use the radionuclides 10Be and 26Al, which form in.

Advanced Search Hanks and Finkel attempt to discredit our cosmogenic nuclide profile dating of a gravel-capped terrace at Bluff, Utah, by suggesting that the gravels could have been deposited in two stages separated by a hiatus of nearly a million years. The cosmogenic nuclide data alone cannot eliminate this possibility.

Nor can the data exclude an arbitrarily complex history, if just the right amount of erosion occurred and new material was added with just the right amount of inheritance. However, our cosmogenic nuclide profile unambiguously indicates the minimum age of the base of the deposit. In addition, all of our data and field observations are consistent with the sediments being deposited in a single episode that occurred quickly with respect to radioactive decay of 26Al i.

In the absence of evidence to the contrary, we therefore conclude that a single depositional episode is the most likely explanation Wolkowinsky and Granger, We would like to elaborate first by reviewing the capabilities and weaknesses of dating sediments with cosmogenic nuclide profiles, and second by discussing the absence of evidence for multistage deposition at the Bluff terrace.

When analyzing cosmogenic nuclides in sediments from a profile, it is important to realize what can and cannot be determined. The 26Al and 10Be concentrations at shallower depths depend only weakly on depositional age, but are sensitive to the erosion rate of the past few meters of sediment removed. The erosion rate determined from the upper part of the profile can then be used to refine the burial age determined for the lower part of the profile.

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Environmental radioactivity is produced by radioactive materials in the human some radioisotopes, such as strontium (90 Sr) and technetium (99 Tc), are only found on Earth as a result of human activity, and some, like potassium (40 K), are only present due to natural processes, a few isotopes, e.g. tritium (3 H), result from both natural processes and human activities.

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Reducing the uncertainties of nuclide production rates by more accurate calibrations with independently dated natural rock surfaces is crucial for further improving the quantification of earth surface processes. Our determination is based on 1 measured nuclide concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be, 21Ne, and 26Al, 2 a conservative estimate for the erosion of the tuff in the Volcanic Tableland area, which we base on our previously published 21Ne concentrations [Goethals, M. Determining the impact of faulting on the rate of erosion in a low-relief landscape: A case study using in situ produced 21Ne on active normal faults in the Bishop Tuff, California.

Alan Bond (born ) is an English mechanical and aerospace engineer, as well as Managing Director of Reaction Engines Ltd and associated with Project Daedalus, Blue Streak missile, HOTOL, Reaction Engines Skylon and the Reaction Engines A2 hypersonic passenger aircraft.

For example, 26Al and 10Be are produced in quartz at 26Al: If a sample of quartz is exposed at the surface for a time, 26Al and 10Be concentrations reflect this ratio; if it is then buried below the penetration depth of cosmic rays, production stops and both nuclides decay. Because quartz derived from surface erosion and then buried by sediment accumulation is common, the method is widely applicable for dating Plio-Pleistocene clastic sediments. All terrestrial applications of burial dating so far have used the 26Al—10Be pair.

Here we show that coupling cosmogenic 21Ne, which is also produced in quartz, with 26Al or 10Be should improve upon both the age range and accuracy of 26Al—10Be burial dating. We establish the feasibility of this approach by 21Ne measurements at two sites that have already been dated using 26Al—10Be burial dating. Burial ages from all three nuclide pairs agree at both sites, which shows that currently accepted values for decay constants and production ratios are internally consistent.

Thus, it is possible at present to increase the useful range of cosmogenic-nuclide burial dating by incorporating 21Ne. Previous article in issue.

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We are closed on Sundays. Our address is W. Springfield, Mo ; Chuck Ciampaglio, Dept. Geology, Wright State Univ. Workers accidentally blasted a 40 feet The Dating Process Cosmogenic Burial Dating Over the last decade in-situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides such as 26Al, 10Be and 36Cl have been increasingly used to date glacial landforms. This method has been checked by other dating techniques Grainger and and has been proven to be effective.

cosmogenic nuclide dating – The earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays, which create radioactive element during nuclear collisions (e.g., 14C). They do this with many elements, creating nuclides like 10Be, 26Al, and 39Cl.

But if the system remains closed, the cogeneticboxeswill remain on a straight line Figure 3. The initial age t0 of the system canbe determined bymeasuring the slope ofwhole rocks and t1 canbedeterminedbymeasuring the isochronoftheminerals. Asthismethodinvolvesmea- suring lead isotope compositions only, with no need tomeasure Uand Pb concentrations, it is fareasier to implementexperimentally. Determine the Pb—Pb age. What can you say of the U—Pb or Th—Pb ages?

Answer The Pb—Pb isotope age is 2. No age can be determined from the U—Pb isotope plot. The Th—Pb isotope plot indicates an age of 2. Data after Tilton et al.

Alan Bond (engineer)

Planetary Science Research Discoveries. November 13, An Even More Precise View of Aluminum in the Solar Nebula New, precise analyses of the short-lived isotope aluminum indicate it was distributed uniformly throughout the early solar system, an important clue to its origin. To be useful as a dating tool however, it must be distributed uniformly throughout the Solar System.

Consistent with previous results, they find that 26Al was indeed distributed uniformly throughout at least the inner Solar System. Combining published and new data, they show that the rate at which chondrules formed might have varied. The entire time from initial collapse of a cloud a light-year across to formation of millions of planetesimals was only a few million years.

Therefore, the aim of this study is to optimize the extraction of 10Be and 26Al from quartz for the AMS measurements in the range of ca. 10Be at.g−1 and 26Al at.g−1 in 50 g of purified quartz.

One of the very foundations of evolution and popular science today is the “geologic column. Although not found in all locations and although it varies in thickness as well as the numbers of layers present, this column can be found generally over the entire globe. Many of its layers can even be found on top of great mountains – such as Mt. Everest and the American Rockies. In some places, such as the mile deep Grand Canyon, the layers of the column have been revealed in dramatic display.

Certainly the existence of the column and its layered nature is quite clear, but what does it mean? Is it really a record of millions and even billions of years of Earth’s history?

Boiler Bytes: ‘Peking Man’ older than thought; somehow adapted to cold


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